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College athletic spending at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools exceeded $7.9 billion in 2010.



Ever since its publication in 1951 in Psychometrika, Cronbach’s famous paper has been a landmark to psychometricians, test constructors and test practitioners. Today, the paper still is one of the most downloaded papers from Psychometrika’s website (accessible via of Science reports over 6,500 citations, which is a crushing number compared to the already very respectable 400+ citations for Kuder and Richardson (1937) and 200+ citations for Guttman (1945). For what it is worth (perhaps biological articles become outdated quicker than psychometric articles), it even outranks Watson and Crick’s famous 1953 Nature article in which they describe the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA.



Cronbach (2004) recently provided researchers with his final thoughts on coefficient alpha. He reviewed earlier
work on reliability and noted that others had provided the framework he used in 1951, confessing “it is an embarrassment to me that the formula became conventionally known as Cronbach’s ” (p. 397).

Rodriguez and Maeda


Lipsey and Wilson (1993) examined available meta-analyses of over 300 psychological interventions (treatment conditions) and found that only two of the treatments (less than 1%) had essentially no effect. 

Lipsey and Wilson


Wainer and Thissen (1993) estimated that the scoring of 10 constructed-response items costs about $30 while the  scoring of multiple-choice items to achieve the same level of reliability costs only about 1¢.

Liu et al.


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This study suggests that creating smaller schools might not be the best mechanism to raise student achievement.​

Wyse, Keesler, Schneider

Michigan State, 2008

More than 90 years ago the Army Alpha marked the first large- scale use of multiple-choice items in assessment, leading to the use of multiple choice items in nearly all large-scale high- stakes assessments.

Williamson,Xi & Breyer


Given that the a) test is long enough, b) the test items have desirable difficulty, c) and high discrimination, d) the sample of examinees is diverse and representative of the population, e) and the construct is unidimensional, then Coefficient Alpha should be very high.

Thomas M. Haladyna


...showed substance use consequences of depression but no significant gender differences.

Green & Stuart

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2014

...regarding performance indices, results showed no significant effects of skipping a grade.

Kretschmann, Vock & Lüdtke

Journal of Educational Psychology, 2014 test name, purpose, source, number of items, time required, format, reliability, validity,
and related research.

Hogan, Benjamin and Brezinski

EPM, 2000

Marsh and Hau (2003) subsequently applied a three-level model with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and  Development   (OECD)/Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study, demonstrating the cross-national generalizability of the BFLPE.  


BFLPE: big-fish-little-pond effect a classic  contextual effect in which the effect of individual student achievement (L1-ACH) on academic self-concept (L1-ASC) is positive, but the corresponding effect of group-average (school or classroom) achievement  (L2- ACH) is negativ

Marsh and Hau

American Psychologist, 58, 364–376.

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